Comparative transcriptional analysis of Candida auris biofilms following farnesol and tyrosol treatment

Ágnes Jakab, Fruzsina Kovács, Noémi Balla, Csaba Nagy-Köteles, Ágota Ragyák, Fruzsina Nagy, Andrew M. Borman, László Majoros, Renátó Kovács*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Candida auris is frequently associated with biofilm-related invasive infections. The resistant profile of these biofilms necessitates innovative therapeutic options, where quorum sensing may be a potential target. Farnesol and tyrosol are two fungal quorum-sensing molecules with antifungal effects at supraphysiological concentrations. Here, we performed genome-wide transcript profiling with C. auris biofilms following farnesol or tyrosol exposure using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Since transition metals play a central role in fungal virulence and biofilm formation, levels of intracellular calcium, magnesium, and iron were determined following farnesol or tyrosol treatment using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Farnesol caused an 89.9% and 73.8% significant reduction in the calcium and magnesium content, respectively, whereas tyrosol resulted in 82.6%, 76.6%, and 81.2% decrease in the calcium, magnesium, and iron content, respectively, compared to the control. Genes involved in biofilm events, glycolysis, ergosterol biosynthesis, fatty acid oxidation, iron metabolism, and autophagy were primarily affected in treated cells. To prove ergosterol quorum-sensing molecule interactions, microdilution-based susceptibility testing was performed, where the complexation of farnesol, but not tyrosol, with ergosterol was impeded in the presence of exogenous ergosterol, resulting in a minimum inhibitory concentration increase in the quorum-sensing molecules. This study revealed several farnesol- and tyrosol-specific responses, which will contribute to the development of alternative therapies against C. auris biofilms. IMPORTANCE Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen, which is frequently associated with biofilm-related infections. Candida-derived quorum-sensing molecules (farnesol and tyrosol) play a pivotal role in the regulation of fungal morphogenesis and biofilm development. Furthermore, they may have remarkable anti-biofilm effects, especially at supraphysiological concentrations. Innovative therapeutic approaches interfering with quorum sensing may be a promising future strategy against C. auris biofilms; however, limited data are currently available concerning farnesol-induced and tyrosol-related molecular effects in C. auris. Here, we detected several genes involved in biofilm events, glycolysis, ergosterol biosynthesis, fatty acid oxidation, iron metabolism, and autophagy, which were primarily influenced following farnesol or tyrosol exposure. Moreover, calcium, magnesium, and iron homeostasis were also significantly affected. These results reveal those molecular and physiological events, which may support the development of novel therapeutic approaches against C. auris biofilms.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMicrobiology Spectrum
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2024 Jakab et al.

Keywords

  • Candida auris
  • biofilm
  • calcium
  • ergosterol
  • iron
  • magnesium
  • quorum-sensing
  • transcriptome

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative transcriptional analysis of Candida auris biofilms following farnesol and tyrosol treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this