The most common world-wide cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and colitis is the toxin producing bacterium, Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile). Here we review the background and characteristics of the bacterium and the toxins produced together with the epidemiology and the complex pathogenesis that leads to a broad clinical spectrum of disease. The review describes the difficulties faced in obtaining a quick and accurate diagnosis despite the range of sensitive and specific diagnostic tools available. We also discuss the problem of disease recurrence and the importance of disease prevention. The high rates of infection recurrence mean that treatment strategies are constantly under review and we outline the diverse treatment options that are currently in use and explore the emerging treatment options of pulsed antibiotic use, microbial replacement therapies and the use of monoclonal antibodies. We summarize the future direction of treatment strategies which include the development of novel antibiotics, the administration of oral polyclonal antibody formulations, the use of vaccines, the administration of competitive non-toxigenic spores and the neutralization of antibiotics at the microbiota level. Future successful treatments will likely involve a combination of therapies to provide the most effective and robust approach to C. difficile management.
|Title of host publication||Immunotherapeutics|
|Publisher||Academic Press Inc.|
|Number of pages||31|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2022|
|Name||Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Inc.
- Antibiotic resistance
- C. difficile
- CDI diagnosis
- CDI treatment
- Fecal transplantation
- Immunotherapy of CDI
- Oral antibodies