Campylobacter outbreak associated with raw drinking milk, North West England, 2016

J. Kenyon*, Thomas Inns, Heather Aird, C. Swift, J. Astbury, E. Forester, V. Decraene

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
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In December 2016, Public Health England investigated an outbreak of campylobacteriosis in North West England, with 69 cases in total. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations associated the illness with the consumption of unpasteurised cows' milk from Farm X, where milk was predominantly sold from a vending machine. Campylobacter was detected in milk samples which, when sequenced, were identical in sequence type as pathogens isolated from cases (Clonal Complex ST-403, Sequence Type 7432). The farm was served with a Hygiene Emergency Prohibition Order to prevent further cases. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of campylobacter associated with unpasteurised milk in England since 1996. Our findings highlighted several important lessons, including that the current testing regime in England for unpasteurised milk is not fit for purpose and that the required warning label should include additional wording, underscoring the risk to vulnerable groups. There has been a substantial increase in both the volume of unpasteurised milk consumed in England and the use of vending machines to sell unpasteurised milk over the last 10 years, making unpasteurised milk more readily accessible to a wider population. The evidence generated from outbreaks like this is therefore critical and should be used to influence policy development.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13
JournalEpidemiology and Infection
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding information: No funding information.

Open Access: This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Publisher Copyright: © Crown Copyright, 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.

Citation: Kenyon, J., et al. "Campylobacter outbreak associated with raw drinking milk, North West England, 2016." Epidemiology & Infection 148 (2020).



  • Campylobacter
  • epidemiology
  • food-borne infections
  • outbreak
  • raw milk


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