Biosafety standards for working with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Manfred Weidmann*, Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc, Silvia Bino, Michelle Bouloy, Felicity Burt, Sadegh Chinikar, Iva Christova, Isuf Dedushaj, Ahmed El-Sanousi, Nazif Elaldi, Roger Hewson, Frank T. Hufert, Isme Humolli, Petrus Jansen Van Vuren, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Gülay Korukluoglu, Pieter Lyssen, Ali Mirazimi, Johan Neyts, Matthias NiedrigAykut Ozkul, Anna Papa, Janusz Paweska, Amadou A. Sall, Connie S. Schmaljohn, Robert Swanepoel, Yavuz Uyar, Friedemann Weber, Herve Zeller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus, CCHF virus (CCHFV), is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level (CL)-4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL)-2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100 000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the tests required to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the countries affected. Downgrading of CCHFV research work from CL-4, BSL-4 to CL-3, BSL-3 should also be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number000610
Pages (from-to)2799-2808
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of General Virology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Authors.


  • Aerosol
  • Biosafety
  • Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus
  • Droplet
  • Laboratory acquired infection
  • Nosocomial infection
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Seroepidemiology


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