Bacteremia in children: Epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and antibiotic treatment

Sumita Pai*, David A. Enoch, Sani H. Aliyu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


The diagnosis of bacteremia in children is important and it can be clinically challenging to recognize the signs and symptoms. The reported rates of bacteremia are higher in young children but with the increasing vaccine coverage, there has been a decrease in bacteremia due to the three vaccine preventable bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae group b and Neisseria meningitidis). Notably, there have been increases in healthcare-associated bacteremias with a rise in Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteremias. This review provides a brief overview of the clinical diagnosis of bacteremia in children, focusing on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, risk factors, antibiotic treatment, outcomes and preventative measures to reduce the incidence of bacteremia and improve morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1073-1088
Number of pages16
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 © Informa UK, Ltd.


  • bacteremia
  • children
  • clinical diagnosis
  • paediatric infection
  • sepsis


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