The frequencies of HLA class I antigens and class II haplotypes were compared in subjects with previous (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-negative) or with persistent (PCR-positive) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and in HCV patients with mild versus severe histologic activity scores on liver biopsy. The DRB1*11 allele group was found in 11 (31.4%) of 35 subjects with previous infection and in 11 (8.2%) of 135 subjects with persistent infection (P < .001). The DQB1*0301 allele was found in 18 (51.4%) of 35 subjects with previous infection and in 33 (24.4%) of 135 patients with persistent infection (P < .002). Both observations remained significant after correction for multiple testing. No significant association was shown between severity of disease and any HLA class I or II type. Thus, the HLA class II alleles DRB1*11 and DQB1*0301 are associated with clearance of circulating HCV.