Annual vaccination against influenza is the best tool to prevent deaths and hospitalizations. Regular updates of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) are necessary due to high mutation rates in influenza viruses. TIV effectiveness is affected by antigenic mismatches, age, previous immunity, and other host factors. Studying TIV effectiveness annually in different populations is critical. The serological responses to Southern-Hemisphere TIV and circulating influenza strains were evaluated in 2018–2020 among Brazilian volunteers, using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Post-vaccination titers were corrected to account for pre-vaccination titers. Our population achieved >83% post-vaccination seroprotection levels, whereas seroconversion rates ranged from 10% to 46%. TIV significantly enhanced antibody titers and seroprotection against all prior and contemporary vaccine and circulating strains tested. Strong cross-reactive responses were detected, especially between H1N1 subtypes. A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016, included in the 2018 TIV, induced the poorest response. Significant titer and seroprotection reductions were observed 6 and 12 months after vaccination. Age had a slight effect on TIV response, whereas previous vaccination was associated with lower seroconversion rates and titers. Despite this, TIV induced high seroprotection for all strains, in all groups. Regular TIV evaluations, based on regional influenza strain circulation, should be conducted and the factors affecting response studied.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We were funded by Fiocruz (POM/IOC 006.8315.089.1201; Inova COVID-19 VPPCB-005-FIO-20-2-69), CNPq (313403/2018-0 and 402457/2020–0), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: E-26/203.156/2017 and 26/210.196/2020, and CNPq/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações/Ministério da Saúde (MS/FNDCT/SCTIE/Decit) (403276/2020-9).
© 2022 by the authors.