Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom

Sarah J. O'Brien*, Anna L. Donaldson, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Clarence C. Tam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI,. 9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S15-S18
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank all the participants, study nurses, general practitioners, practice staff, laboratory, research, and administrative staff who took part in the IID2 study; and the Medical Research Council General Practice Research Framework, the primary care research networks in England and Northern Ireland, and the Scottish Primary Care Research Network, for assistance with the recruitment of general practices. S. J. O. and M. I.-G. conceived the study. C. C. T. undertook the statistical analyses. S. J. O., A. D., M. I.-G., and C. C. T. drafted the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. All authors had full access to the whole study data set (including statistical reports and tables) and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. S. J. O. is the guarantor of the study. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), the Department of Health, or Public Health England. This work was supported by the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health (grant FS231043 [B18021] to the IID2 study); the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Gastrointestinal Infections at the University of Liverpool (grant NIHR HPRU 2012-10038 S. J. O. and M. I.-G); and the Farr Institute (which is supported by a 10-funder consortium composed of Arthritis Research UK, the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the Medical Research Council, the NIHR, the National Institute for Social Care and Health Research [Welsh Assembly government], the Chief Scientist Office [Scottish government health directorates], and theWellcome Trust [MRC grant MR/K006665/1]). S. J.O. andM. I.-G. gave invited presentations at an Infectious Disease Research Network meeting on norovirus in London in October 2014 that was supported by Takeda Pharmaceuticals. All other authors report no potential conflicts. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Author.


  • acute gastroenteritis
  • community
  • incidence
  • norovirus
  • pediatric
  • policy
  • prevention
  • primary healthcare
  • real-time/quantitative RT-PCR
  • vaccination


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