A study of photobactericidal activity in the phenothiazinium series

M. Wainwright*, D. A. Phoenix, J. Marland, D. R.A. Wareing, F. J. Bolton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

145 Citations (Scopus)


The photodynamic antibacterial properties of a closely related series of commercially available phenothiazinium dyes were tested against a range of pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The photosensitisers were illuminated using a non-laser light source at a fluence of 1.75 mW cm-2 and this resulted in the enhancement of antibacterial activity in liquid culture. In several cases, illumination resulted in considerable decreases in the minimum lethal concentrations required, giving up to 100-fold increases in bactericidal activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-80
Number of pages6
JournalFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiacterial
  • Phenothiazinium
  • Photobactericide
  • Photodynamic action


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