Aims: Coronary artery fistulae represent one of the most challenging anatomical defects to define accurately. We aimed to investigate the additional benefit conferred by volume rendering of tomographic images and 3D printing for diagnosis and interventional planning. Methods and results: Four cases of coronary fistulae were considered for transcatheter closure. Multidetector computed tomography (three cases) or cardiac magnetic resonance (one case) images were acquired and segmented using Mimics software. Each case was reviewed after incremental consideration of diagnostic resources: two cardiologists reported source and volume-rendered images; device closure was discussed by the interventional cardiology team. All diagnoses and planned management were reviewed after inspection of a 3D model. Using source images alone, both cardiologists correctly described the course and drainage in two out of four cases. Aided by volume rendering, this improved to three out of four cases. Inspection of the 3D printed model prompted the planned interventional approach and device sizing to be altered in two out of four cases. In one out of four cases, the intervention was abandoned after inspection of the 3D printed model. Conclusions: Diagnosis and management of patients with coronary artery fistulae rely on detailed image analyses. 3D models add value when determining the feasibility of, and the approach to intervention in these cases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute for Health Research Cardiovascular Health Technology Cooperative and Biomedical Research Centre awarded to Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King’s College London.
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- Coronary fistulae
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Multislice computed tomography
- Non-invasive imaging