3D printed models in patients with coronary artery fistulae: Anatomical assessment and interventional planning

Mari Nieves Velasco Forte, Nick Byrne, Israel Valverde Perez, Aaron Bell, Gorka Gómez-Ciriza, Thomas Krasemann, Horst Sievert, John Simpson, Kuberan Pushparajah, Reza Razavi, Shakeel Qureshi, Tarique Hussain*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: Coronary artery fistulae represent one of the most challenging anatomical defects to define accurately. We aimed to investigate the additional benefit conferred by volume rendering of tomographic images and 3D printing for diagnosis and interventional planning. Methods and results: Four cases of coronary fistulae were considered for transcatheter closure. Multidetector computed tomography (three cases) or cardiac magnetic resonance (one case) images were acquired and segmented using Mimics software. Each case was reviewed after incremental consideration of diagnostic resources: two cardiologists reported source and volume-rendered images; device closure was discussed by the interventional cardiology team. All diagnoses and planned management were reviewed after inspection of a 3D model. Using source images alone, both cardiologists correctly described the course and drainage in two out of four cases. Aided by volume rendering, this improved to three out of four cases. Inspection of the 3D printed model prompted the planned interventional approach and device sizing to be altered in two out of four cases. In one out of four cases, the intervention was abandoned after inspection of the 3D printed model. Conclusions: Diagnosis and management of patients with coronary artery fistulae rely on detailed image analyses. 3D models add value when determining the feasibility of, and the approach to intervention in these cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e1080-e1083
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute for Health Research Cardiovascular Health Technology Cooperative and Biomedical Research Centre awarded to Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King’s College London.

Publisher Copyright:
© Europa Digital & Publishing 2017. All rights reserved.


  • Coronary fistulae
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Multislice computed tomography
  • Non-invasive imaging


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